Finding Information on Salmon

Contents of Finding Information on Salmon

Starting Out

Look in an encyclopedia or similar basic source to get background information on salmon. Make a list of terms, such as common names, species names, and perhaps some special terms like "parr." These terms can help you later in a search for journal articles or Web sites. For online help with common and scientific names, consult FishBase (http://www.fishbase.org/search.cfm). For help with definitions of unfamiliar terms, try one of ourbiology and life science dictionaries. To connect to a dictionary, you will need to give your My Chemeketa login information.

Books In Chemeketa's Library And Online



Reference Books

R 503 M17McGraw-Hill encyclopedia of science & technology
R 591 G92Grzimek's animal life encyclopedia, Vol. 4


Other Books

Try the following Library of Congress subject headings in your library catalog:
Chinook salmonChinook salmon fisheries
Coho salmonCoho salmon fisheries
Pacific salmonPacific salmon fisheries
SalmonSalmon fisheries

The books listed below are in Chemeketa's library catalog. Click on the title of the book to check for location and availability.

Augerot, X. (2005). Atlas of Pacific salmon: the first map-based 
      status assessment of salmon in the North Pacific. Berkeley : University 
      of California. [333.95656 At6]

Behnke, R.J. (2002). Trout and salmon of North America. New York: Free 
      Press. [597.57 B39]

Bisson, P.A. (2006). Assessment of the risk of invasion of national forest
      streams in the Pacific Northwest by farmed Atlantic salmon. Portland, 
      OR: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest 
      Research Station. [634 PNW697 G.T.R.] Also available at 
      http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/pnw_gtr697.pdf

Blumm, M.C. (2002). Sacrificing the salmon: A legal and policy history 
      of the decline of Columbia Basin salmon. [Den Bosch, Netherlands]: Bookworld. [333.95656 B62]

Bowling, T. (2007). The lost coast: salmon, memory, and the death of wild 
      culture. Gibsons Landing, BC: Nightwood Eds. [333.95656 B68]

Busch, R. (2000). Salmon country: a history of the Pacific salmon. Toronto: 
      Key Porter Books. [587.56 B96]

Cedarholm, C.J., Johnson, D.H., Bilby, R.E., Dominguez, L.G., Garrett, A.M., Graeber, 
      W.H., et al. (2001). Pacific salmon and wildlife: ecological contexts, 
      relationships, and implications for management. In Johnson, D. H. & 
      O'Neil, T.A. (Eds.), Wildlife-habitat relationships in Oregon and 
      Washington. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press. [591.709795 W64]

Committee on Protection and Management of Pacific Northwest Anadromous 
      Salmonids, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Commission on 
      Life Sciences. (1996). Upstream: salmon and society in the Pacific 
      Northwest.  Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. [597.56 Up7]
      Also available at http://books.nap.edu/books/0309053250/html/index.html

Cone, J. (1994). A common fate: endangered salmon and the people of the 
      Pacific Northwest. New York: H. Holt. [333.956 C75]

Cone, J. & Ridlington, S. (Eds.). (1996). The Northwest salmon crisis: 
      a documentary history. Corvallis, Or.: Oregon State University Press. 
      [333.956 N81]

Cornwell, T.J., Bottom, D.L. & Jones, K.K. (2001). Rearing of juvenile 
      salmon in recovering wetlands of the Salmon River estuary (Information 
      Reports 2001-05). Portland: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. 
      [639.209795 C81]

Fobes, N. (1994). Reaching home: Pacific salmon, Pacific people. Anchorage: 
      Alaska Northwest Books. [333.956 F68]

Fraker, M.A. & Mate, B.R.(1999). Seals, sea lions, and salmon in the Pacific 
      Northwest. In Twiss, J.R., & Reeves, R.R. (Eds.), Conservation and 
      management of marine mammals.  Washington: Smithsonian. [333.9595 C76]

Halupka, K.C., Mryant, M.D. & Everest, F.D. (2000). Biological characteristics and 
      population status of anadromous salmon in southeast Alaska (General Technical 
      Report PNW-GTR-468). Portland, Or.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest 
      Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. [634 PNW468 G.T.R.] Also
      available at http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/gtr468.pdf

Haynes, R.W., Bolon, N.A., & Hormaechea, D.T. (1992). The economic impact 
      on the forest sector of critical habitat delineation for salmon in the 
      Columbia and Snake River basin (General technical report PNW ; GTR-307). 
      Portland, Or.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific 
      Northwest Research Station. [634 PNW307 G.T.R.]

Jensen, J. (2011). Saving salmon: bringing C. shasta back into balance [DVD]. 
      [DVD-1035] Klamath Falls, OR: Educational Solutions.

Jensen, J. (2011). Sustaining salmon: fishermen, scientists, and Project CROOS
      [DVD]. [DVD-1036] Klamath Falls, OR: Educational Solutions.

Johnson, D.H., Pittman, N., Wilder, E., Silver, J.A., Plotnikoff, R.W., Mason, 
      B.C., et al. (2001). Inventory and monitoring of salmon habitat in the Pacific
      Northwest : directory and synthesis of protocols for management/research and 
      volunteers in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and British Columbia. 
      [Olympia]: Washington Department of Fish And Wildlife. [591.709795 In8]


Joint Columbia River Management Staff. (2001). Joint staff report concerning the 2001 
      in-river commercial harvest of Columbia River fall chinook salmon, summer steelhead,
      coho salmon, and sturgeon. Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Dept. of Fish
      and Wildlife. [338.3727 J66]

Knudsen, E. E., et al., (eds.) (2000). Sustainable fisheries management: Pacific 
      salmon. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers. [333.95 Su85]

Lang, D.W. (2010). A survey of sport fish use on the Copper River Delta, Alaska
      (General Technical Report PNW814 ). Portland, OR : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 
      Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Also available at 
      http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/pnw_gtr814.pdf

Lichatowich, J. (1999). Salmon without rivers: a history of the Pacific salmon 
      crisis. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. [333.95 L61]

Meehan, W.R. (1996).  Influence of riparian canopy on macroinvertebrate 
      composition and food habits of juvenile salmonids in several Oregon streams.
      Portland, Or. : U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest 
      Research Station. [634 PNW496 R.P.]
      Also available online at http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/rp_496.pdf

Oregon Plan For Salmon And Watersheds. (2001). Annual report. Salem, OR: 
      Governor's Natural Resources Office; Governor's Watershed Enhancement 
      Board. [Reference 363.73948 Or3 2001]

Oregon Plan For Salmon And Watersheds. (2005). Biennial report. Salem, OR: 
      Oregon Watershed Enhancement Board. [363.73948 Or3b 2003-05]

Quinn, T.P. (2005). The behavior and ecology of Pacific salmon 
      and trout. Bethesda, Md. : American Fisheries Society.  [597.56 Q4]
Also available as an e-book on ebrary.

Taylor, J.E. (1999). Making salmon: An environmental history of the 
      northwest fisheries crisis. Seattle: University of Washington. [333.95 T]

Williams, R. (2001). Estimating run size and spawner escapement of chinook salmon 
      in Elk River, Curry County, for use as an exploitation rate indicator for mid 
      coastal wild chinook stocks. Portland, Or.: Fish Division, Oregon Dept. of Fish 
      and Wildlife. [639.209795 W67]

Williams, R. (2005). Return to the river: Restoring salmon to the Columbia River. 
      Burlington, MA: Academic Press.

Willson, M.F. (1997). Variation in salmonid life histories: Patterns and 
      perspectives.  Portland, OR: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, 
      Pacific Northwest Research Station. [634 PNW498 R.P.] Also 
      available online at http://www.krisweb.com/biblio/gen_usfs_willson_1997_pnwrp498.pdf

Woodsmith, R.D., Wilkins, P. K., & Bookter, A. (2013). Water quality trends in 
      the Entiat River Watershed, 2007-2010 (Research Note PNW-569). [634 PNW569 R.N.] 
      Portland, OR: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest 
      Research Station. Also online at http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/43855

Woody, E. (2003). Salmon nation: People, fish, and our common home. Portland,
     Or.: Ecotrust. [597.56 Sa3 2003]

Zhou, S. (2000). Stock assessment and optimal escapement of coho salmon in 
      three Oregon coastal lakes. Portland, Or.: Fish Division, Oregon Dept. 
      of Fish and Wildlife. [639.209795 Z6]

Journal Articles, Technical Reports, & Other Documents Available On the Internet

Here are a selection of journal articles, technical reports, conference proceedings, and "grey literature," most of which are available online. Northwest chinook and coho salmon are emphasized. The articles are arranged for convenience by subject categories, but in practice these topics are interrelated and some categories may overlap. If you don't find what you want, use your browser's search command (Control-F in Internet Explorer or Firefox) to search for key words or phrases.

Simply click on a highlighted article title to view the article. For articles in library databases, if you are viewing this page on a computer not connected to Chemeketa's network, you will need the your My Chemeketa user name and password.

Articles not cited as being from a Chemeketa database can be accessed without logging in, from any location, by clicking on the article title.

                                 Topics
Aquaculture, Effects of
Aquatic Species, Interspecific Relationships Among
Behavior
Climate, Effects of
Dams, Effects of
Economics & Society
Food & Nutrition Studies
Hatcheries, Impact of
Law
Physiology
Planning, Habitat Restoration & Management
Pollution see Water Quality, Effect of
Population Genetics
Population Studies, General
Predation
Terrestrial & Riparian Ecosystems, Relationships With
Water Quality, Effect of
Miscellaneous topics
 


Aquaculture, Impact Of

See also Brenninkmeyer; Ferguson

Hedrick, P.W. (2001). Invasion of transgenes from salmon or other genetically 
      modified organisms into natural populations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries 
      and Aquatic Sciences, 58, 841-844. Retrieved from 
      http://science.kennesaw.edu/~jdirnber/Bio2108/Lecture/LecEvolution/TransgeneSalm.pdf

Krkosek, M., Lewis, M.A., Morton, A., Frazer, L.N. & Volpe, J.P. (2006). 
      Epizootics of wild fish induced by farm fish. Proceedings of the National 
      Academy of Sciences, 103, 15506-15510. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from 
      http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/103/42/15506

Nash, C.E. (Ed.). (2001). The net-pen salmon farming industry in the Pacific 
      Northwest (NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-49). U.S. Department 
      of Commerce. 125 p. Retrieved October 10, 2002, from 
      http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/publications/techmemos/tm49/tm49.htm

Naylor, R.L., Eagle, J., & Smith, W.L. (October 2003). Salmon aquaculture in the 
      Pacific Northwest: A global industry with local impacts. Environment 45, 
      p. 18-39. Retrieved October 22, 2013 from General OneFile database

Naylor, R., et al. (2005). Fugitive salmon: Assessing the risks of escaped 
      fish from net-pen aquaculture. Bioscience 55, 427-437. Retrieved 
      December 1, 2009, from General OneFile database

Noakes, D.J., Beamish, R.J., & Kent, M.L. (2000). On the decline of Pacific 
      salmon and speculative links to salmon farming in British Columbia. 
      Aquaculture, 183, 363-386. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(99)00294-X

Schiermeier, Q. (2003). Fish farms' threat to salmon stocks exposed. Nature 425, p. 753.

      Note: Abstract only is available online. The library subscribes to this journal. If 
      you are a distant student and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact
      the librarian at 503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.

Stokstad, E. (2002, September 13). Engineered fish: friend or foe 
      of the environment?. Science 297, 2p. Retrieved january 26, 2010,
      from General OneFile database

Volpe, J.P., Taylor, E.B. & Glickman, B.W. (2000). Evidence of natural reproduction 
      of aquaculture-escaped atlantic salmon in a coastal British Columbia river.  
      Conservation Biology 14, 899.
            
      Note: Abstract only is available online. The library subscribes to this journal. If 
      you are a distant student and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact
      the librarian at 503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.

Aquatic Species, Interspecific Relationships Among

See also Brodeur; Emmett (1996, 2001); Lindley

Harvey, B.C. & Nakamoto, R.J. (1996). Effects of steelhead density on growth 
      of coho salmon in a small coastal California stream. Transactions of the 
      American Fisheries Society 125, :237-243. Retrieved February 24, 2003,
      from http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/7777

Levy, S. (1997, November). Pacific salmon bring it all back home. Bioscience 47, 4p.  
      Retrieved December 3, 2009 from General OneFile database (Article 
      number 9710184764).

Behavior

See also Cromwell; Khan; MacInlay

Barinaga, Marcia (1999, October 22). Salmon follow watery odors home.  Science 286,
      2 p. Retrieved December 3, 2009 from General OneFile database (Article 
      number 2440756).

Brown, K. (2000, October 27). Pacific salmon run hot and cold. Science 290, 
      2p. Retrieved December 3, 2009 from General OneFile database 
      (Article number 4011154).

Eiler, J.H., Spencer, T.R., Pella, J.J. & , M.M. Masuda (2006, March). Stock 
      composition, run timing, and movement patterns of chinook salmon 
      returning to the Yukon River basin in 2003 (NOAA Technical memorandum 
      NOAA-TM-NMFS-AFSC-163). Juneau, AK: National Marine Fisheries Service. 
      Retrieved January 12, 2007, from 
      http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/techmemos/nmfs-afsc-163.htm

Flannery, E.W., Butts, I.A.E., Słowińska, A.C., & Pitcher, T.E. (2013). Reproductive  
      investment patterns, sperm characteristics, and seminal plasma physiology in  
      alternative reproductive tactics of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). 
      Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2013, 99-108. 
      DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2012.01980.x

 Salas, A.K. & Snyder, E.B. (2010, January). Diel fish habitat selection 
      in a tributary stream. The American Midland Naturalist,       
      163 (1), 33-43. Retrieved from www.nd.edu/~ammidnat/

Semmens, B. X. (2008, September). Acoustically derived fine-scale 
      behaviors of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) 
      associated with intertidal benthic habitats in an estuary. Canadian 
      Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 65<9), 2053-2062.  
      doi:10.1139/F08-107

Wessel, M.L., Smoker, W.W., Fagen, R.M. & Joyce, J. (2006). Variation of agonistic 
      behavior among juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) of hatchery, 
      hybrid, and wild origin. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 63, 
      438-447. doi:10.1139/F05-227

Zabel, R.W., Anderson, J.J., & Shaw, P.A. (1998). A multiple reach model describing
      the migratory behavior of Snake River yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus 
      tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
      Aquatic Sciences, 55, p. 658-667. Retrieved December 10, 2003, from
      http://www.cbr.washington.edu/papers/multireach/paper2.pdf.

Climate, Effects of

See also Brodeur; Miller

Abdul-Aziz, O.I., Mantua, N.J., & Myers, K.W. (2011). Potential climate
      change impacts on thermal habitats of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus 
      spp.) in the North Pacific Ocean and adjacent seas. Canadian 
      Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 68, 1660-1680. 
      doi:10.1139/F2011-079

Black, B.A., Schroeder, I.D., Sydeman, W.J., Bograd, S.J., & Wells, B.K.  
      (2011). "Winter and summer upwelling modes and their biological 
      importance in the California Current Ecosystem. Global Change 
      Biology, 17, 2536–2545. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02422.x

Crozier, L.G. &amp; Zabel, R.W. (2006). Climate impacts at multiple 
      scales: evidence for differential population responses in juvenile Chinook salmon. 
      Journal of Animal Ecology, 75, 1100-1109. Retrieved January 27, 2008, from 
      http://www.journalofanimalecology.org/view/0/index.html

Finney, Bruce P. (2000, October 27).  Impacts of climatic change and fishing on 
      Pacific salmon abundance over the past 300 years. Science 290, 795, 5 p. 
      Retrieved June 13, 2002 from General OneFile database 
      (Article number 4011154).

Hare, S.R., Mantua, N.J. & Francis, R.C. (1999, January). Inverse production regimes: 
      Alaska and west coast Pacific salmon. [Preprint of article from]
      Fisheries 24, 6-14. Retrieved October 10, 2002 from 
      ftp://ftp.pcouncil.org/pub/Salmon%20EFH/164_Hare_et_al_1999.pdf

Hollowed, A.B., Hare, S.R. & Wooster, W.S. (2001). Pacific - basin climate 
      variability and patterns of northeast Pacific marine fish production. [Preprint 
      of article in] Progress in Oceanography 49, 257-282. doi:
      10.1016/S0079-6611(01)00026-X

Kruse, Gordon H. (1998, Summer). Salmon run failures in 1997-1998: A link to 
      anomalous ocean conditions?. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 5, 55-63. 
      Retrieved September 23, 2002, from 
      http://www.sf.adfg.state.ak.us/FedAidpdfs/AFRB.05.1.055-063.pdf

Kuhne, L.M., Olden, J.D., &amp; Duda, J.J. (2012). Costs of living for juvenile 
      Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an increasingly warming and invaded 
      world. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 69, 1621-1630. 
      doi:10.1139/f2012-094 

Mantua, N.J., Hare, S.R., Zhang, Y., Wallace, J.M. & Francis, R.C. (1997). A 
     Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. 
     [Preprint of article from] Bulletin of the American Meteorological 
     Society 78, 1069-1079.  Retrieved October 8, 2002 from 
     http://www.atmos.washington.edu/~mantua/REPORTS/PDO/PDO.pdf

Salmon. (1999). In P. Mote, et al.,  Impacts of climate variability and change, 
      Pacific Northwest, pp. 51-61.  Seattle, WA: National Atmospheric and Oceanic 
      Administration, Office of Global Programs, and JISAO/SMA Climate Impacts Group.  
      Retrieved January 12, 2004, from 
      http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/Library/nationalassessment/pnw.pdf

      Note: This file does not include all of the graphics included in the printed 
      version of the report 

Zabel, R.W., Scheuerell, M., McClure, M. &  Williams, J.G. (2006). The Interplay 
      between Climate Variability and Density Dependence in the Population Viability of 
      Chinook Salmon. Conservation Biology, 20, 190-200.
      
      Note: Abstract only is available online. The library subscribes to this journal. If 
      you are a distant student and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact
      the librarian at 503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.

Dams, Effect of

See also Barringer, Landers; Whitelaw

Beeman, J.W., Hansen, A.C., Evans, S.D., Haner, P.V. Hansel, H.C., & Smith, C.D. (2012). 
      Passage probabilities of juvenile chinook salmon through the powerhouse and 
      regulating outlet at Cougar Dam, Oregon, 2011. (Open-File Report 2012-1250). U.S. 
      Geological Survey. Reston, VA: The Survey. Retrieved 12 December 2013 from 
      http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1250/pdf/ofr20121250.pdf

Budy, P., Thiede, G.P., Bouwes, N., Petrosky, C.E. &  Schaller, H. (2000). Evidence 
      linking delayed mortality of Snake River salmon to their earlier hydrosystem 
      experience. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22, 35-51. 
      Retrieved November 6, 2012, 
      from http://dropbox.nwcouncil.org/2008amend/cbfwa/Section_2/Budyetal2002.pdf

Collie, J. & Saila, S. (2000, November 3). Of salmon and dams. Science 240, 933.
      Retrieved January 13, 2003, from General OneFile Database
      (Article number 4014693).

Faulkner, J.R., Smith, S.G., Muir, W.D., Marsh, D.M., & Zabel, R.W. (2012). Survival 
      estimates for the passage of spring-migrating juvenile salmonids through 
      Snake and Columbia River dams and reservoirs, 2005-2006. Seattle, WA: 
      National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center. 
      Retrieved November 6, 2012, from http://www.salmonrecovery.gov/Files/
      RME/Spring%20Survival%202011.pdf

Gregory, S. (2002, August). The conceptual basis for ecological responses 
      to dam removal: resource managers face enormous challenges in assessing 
      the consequences of removing large dams from rivers and evaluating 
      management options. Bioscience 52, 11 p.  Retrieved October 
      23, 2002, from General OneFile database (Article number 7112341)

Hurst, C.N., Holt, R.A., & Bartholomew, J.L. (2012). Dam removal and 
      implications for fish health: Ceratomyxa shasta in the Williamson 
      River, Oregon, USA. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 
      32, 14–23. doi: 10.1080/02755947.2012.655843

Johnson, G.E., et al. (2006, May). Hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid 
      passage at The Dalles Dam sluiceway, 2005: Final report. (Report PNNL-15540). 
      Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Retrieved January 10, 2007, 
      from http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-15540.pdf

Kareiva, Peter. (2000, November 3). Recovery and management options for spring/summer
      chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin. Science 290, 3p.  Retrieved 
      June 13, 2002 from General OneFile database (Article 
      number 4014712).

Khan,  F., Hughes, J.S., Johnson, G.E., Fischer, E.S., Royer, I.M., Ham, 
      K.D., . . . Ploskey, G.R. (2012). Acoustic imaging evaluation of 
      juvenile salmonid behavior in the immediate forebay of the water 
      temperature control tower at Cougar Dam, 2010: Final Report 
      (PNNL-20625). Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National 
      Laboratory. Retrieved from http://www.pnnl.gov/main/publications/
      external/technical_reports/PNNL-20625.pdf

Lovett, R.A. (1999, April 23). As salmon stage disappearing act, dams may too. 
      Science 284, 2p. Retrieved June 13, 2002 from General Onefile database

Mann, C.C. (2000, January 7). Army Corps seized by dam indecision. Science 287, 
      2/3p. Retrieved December 11, 2009 from General OneFile

Pelley, J. (2000, March). Breaching dams may save salmon, but the science remains an issue. 
      Environmental science & technology 34, 112, 1 p.

      Note: The library subscribes to this journal. If you are
       a distant student and cannot use the paper version of this journal, 
      contact the librarian at 503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu
      to obtain a copy of the article.

Rechisky, E.L., Welch, D.W., Porter, A.D., Jacobs, M.C., & Ladouceur, A.
      (2009, July). Experimental measurement of hydrosystem-induced delayed mortality 
      in juvenile Snake River spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) using a 
      large-scale acoustic array. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 
      66(7), 1019-1025. doi:10.1139/F09-078

Roll on, Columbia (and the salmon, too). (2005, September). Environment 47, 6-7.
      Retrieved November 10, 2009, from General OneFile

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District. (2002). Improving salmon 
      passage: final Lower Snake River juvenile salmon migration feasibility 
      report/environmental impact statement : summary. Walla Walla, WA: 
      Author. Retrieved January 30, 2013, from 
      http://www.nww.usace.army.mil/portals/28/docs/environmental/drew/social.pdf

      Note: The full report is available at 
      http://www.nww.usace.army.mil/lsr/final_fseis/study_kit/studypage.htm


Van Holmes, C. & Anderson, J.J. (2004). Predicted fall chinook survival 
      and passage timing under BiOp and alternative summer spill programs 
      using the Columbia River Salmon Passage Model. [Seattle: School of 
      Aquatic and Fishery Sciences], University of Washington. Retrieved 
      November 4,2005, from 
      http://www.cbr.washington.edu/sites/default/files/papers/2004SummerSpill.pdf

Williams, J. G., Smith, S. G., Zabel, R. W., Muir, W. D., Scheuerell, M. D., Sandford, 
      B. P., ... & Achord, S. (2005). Effects of the federal Columbia River power 
      system on salmon populations (NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-NWFSC, 63). 
      Seattle, WA: Northwest Fisheries Science Center.

Wilson, P.H. (2003, June). Using population projection matrices to evaluate recovery 
      strategies for Snake River spring and summer chinook salmon. Conservation 
      Biology 17, 782-794.
      
      Note: Abstract only is available online. The library subscribes to this journal. If 
      you are a distant student and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact
      the librarian at 503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.

Economics & Society (General - see also under specific topics, e.g., Dams)

See also Halsing and Wilson

Bottom, D.L., Jones, K.K., Simenstad, C.A., & Smith, C.L. (2009). Reconnecting social 
and ecological resilience in salmon ecosystems. Ecology and Society, 14. 
Retrieved February 4, 2011, from http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss1/art5/ES-2008-2734.pdf

Campbell, S.K. & Butler,  V.L.  (2010). Archaeological Evidence for 
      Resilience of Pacific Northwest Salmon Populations and the Socioecological 
      System over the last~ 7,500 years. Ecology & Society, 15, 1. 17 

Retrieved from http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/index.php

Cook, S.J. (2011). Sustainable "seafood" ecolabeling and awareness 
      initiatives in the context of inland fisheries: Increasing food 
      security and protecting ecosystems. Bioscience, 61, 911-918.
      doi:10.1525/bio.2011.61.11.10
      
      Chemeketa subscribes to this journal.

Gillis, A.M.(March 1995). What's at stake in the Pacific Northwest salmon 
      debate? Bioscience 45, 4p.  Retrieved December 11, 2009 from 
      General OneFile

Lackey, R.T. (2000). Restoring wild salmon to the Pacific Northwest: chasing an 
      illusion? In  Koss, P. and  Katz, M. (Eds.), What We Don't Know about Pacific 
      Northest Fish Runs -- An Inquiry into Decision-Making (pp. 91 - 143). Portland, 
      OR: Portland State University. Retrieved November 1, 2002, from
      http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/staff/lackey/pubs/illusion.htm.


Levy, S. (2003, April). Turbulence in the Klamath River basin. 
      Bioscience 53, p. 315-320. Retrieved December 11, 2009, from General
      OneFile database

Muir, W.D. & Williams, J.G. (2012, November). Improving connectivity between 
      freshwater and marine environments for salmon migrating through the 
      lower Snake and Columbia River hydropower system. Ecological 
      Engineering, 48, 19–24.

Rindahl, B. (1999). Evaluating transportation impacts due to enhancing salmon
      habitat along the Snake River in the State of Washington. In Proceedings
      of the nineteenth annual ESRI user conference, 1999, San Diego, California. 
      [Redlands, CA]: ESRI. Retrieved May 24, 2004, from 
      http://proceedings.esri.com/library/userconf/proc99/proceed/papers/pap403/p403.htm

Service, R.F. (2001, February 23). West's energy woes threaten salmon runs. 
      Science 291, 2 p. Retrieved June 13, 2002 from Academic OneFile

Sharma, R., Quinn, T.P. (2012). Linkages between life history type and migration 
      pathways in freshwater and marine environments for Chinook salmon, 
      Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Acta Oecologica, 41, 1-13. 
      doi:10.1016/j.actao.2012.03.002

Steel, B.S. (1999, July 1).  Public perceptions and preferences concerning 
      Pacific salmon recovery: An Oregon 'voluntary and grassroots' perspective. 
      Social Science Journal 36, 17 p. Retrieved June 13, 2002 from  
      Academic OneFile

Whitelaw, E., Macmullan, E. (2002, August). A framework for estimating the costs 
      and benefits of dam removal. Bioscience 52, 7 p.  Retrieved December 11, 
      2009 from General Onefile database

Wu, J., Skelton-Groth, K., Boggess, W.G. & Adams, R.M. (2003, January). Pacific
      salmon restoration: Trade-offs between economic efficiency and political 
      acceptance. Contemporary Economic Policy 21, 78-89. Retrieved January 
      14, 2003, from Academic OneFile

Farms see Aquaculture

Food & Nutrition Studies

See also Cromwell

Hatcheries

Banks, M.A., Moyer, G.R., &amp; Theriault, V. (2010). Survival and life history 
      characteristics among wild and hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) 
      returns: how do unfed fry differ from smolt releases?  Canadian Journal of 
      Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 67, 486-497.doi: 10.1139/F09-200

Brodeur, R.D., Daly, E.A., Benkwitt, C.E., Morgan, C.A. &amp; Emmett, R.L.
      (2011). Catching the prey: Sampling juvenile fish and invertebrate 
      prey fields of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon during their early  
      marine residence. Fisheries Research, 108, 65–73. 
      doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2010.11.023

Claiborne, A.M. (2013). A comparison of early marine residence in hatchery 
      and natural Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. (Unpublished  master's 
      thesis). Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Flagg, T.A., Berejikian, B.A., Colt, J.E., Dickhoff, W.W., Harrell, L.W., Maynard, D.J.,
      et al. (2000). Ecological and behavioral impacts of artificial production 
      strategies on the abundance of wild salmon populations (NOAA Technical 
      Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-41).  U.S. Department of Commerce.  Retrieved October 
      10, 2002, from http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/publications/techmemos/tm41/tm41.htm

Fredriksen, C.R., Hess, J.E., Matala, A.P., Narum, S.R., Sharp, B., & Zendt, J.S. 
      (2011). Introgressive hybridization among major Columbia River Chinook salmon 
      (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) lineages within the Klickitat River due to hatchery 
      practices . Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 68, 1876-1891. 
      doi:10.1139/F2011-107
Heath, D.D., Heath, J.W., Bryden, C.A., Johnson, R.M., Fox, C.W. (2003, March 
      14). Rapid evolution of egg size in captive salmon. Science 299, 
      1738-1740. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from Academic OneFile

Kaiser, J. (2001, November 30). When is a coho salmon not a coho salmon. Science 294,  
      2p. Retrieved February 28, 2003 from  AcademicOneFile

Kolmes, S.A. (2004, April). Salmon farms and hatcheries. Environment, 46, 40-43. 
      Retrieved December 7, 2009, from Academic OneFile

Konigsberg, J. (2004, April). Salmon farms and hatcheries. Environment, 46, 43-45. 
      Retrieved December 7, 2010, from  Academic OneFile

Lannan, J.E. (2002). Abundance and productivity of naturally spawning Oregon 
      coastal coho salmon  Oncorhynchus kisutch) in rivers with and without 
      hatchery programs. In E. Brannon & D. MacKinlay (Eds.) Hatchery reform: 
      The science and the practiceVancouver: University of  British Columbia 
      International Congress On the Biology Of Fish. Retrieved February 25, 2003, from 
      http://www-heb.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/congress/2002/Hatchery/Lannan.pdf

Levin, P. & Williams, J.G. (2002). Interspecific effects of artifically
      propagated fish: An additional conservation risk for salmon. Conservation 
      biology 16, 1581. Retrieved October 24,2013, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/
      journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1523-1739
      

MacInlay, D. (2002).  Are there inherent behavioural differences between cultured 
      and wild salmon?  In S. McKinley, B. Driedzic & D. MacInlay (Eds.) Behavioral 
      and physiological comparisons of cultured and wild fish. Vancouver: 
      University of British Columbia International Congress On the Biology Of Fish. 
      Retrieved October 10, 2002, from 
      http://www-heb.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/congress/2002/Behavior/MacKinlayBehavior.pdf



MacInlay, D. & Howard, K. (2002). Comparative condition of hatchery and wild coho 
      salmon in freshwater and in the ocean   In S. McKinley, B. Driedzic & D.
      MacInlay (Eds.) Behavioral and physiological comparisons of cultured 
      and wild fish.  Vancouver: University of  British Columbia International 
      Congress On the Biology Of Fish. Retrieved October 10, 2002, from 
      http://www-heb.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/congress/2002/Behavior/MacKinlayHCA.pdf



Sharma, R., Morishima, G., Wang, S. Talbot, A. & Gilbertson, L. (2006). An 
      evaluation of the Clearwater River supplementation program in western 
      Washington. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 423-437.
      doi:10.1139/F05-228

Wang, J. & Ryman, N. (2001). Genetic effects of multiple generations of
      supportive breeding. Conservation Biology, 1619-1631.
      
      Note: Abstract only is available online. The library subscribes to this journal. If 
      you are a distant student and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact
      the librarian at 503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.

Weis, J. (2003). Fish flounder through captive breeding.  Bioscience 53, p. 536. 
      Retrieved December 10, 2009 from General OneFile

Law

Brenninkmeyer, Mary Liz (1999, Fall). The ones that got away: regulating escaped fish 
      and other pollutants from salmon fish farms. Boston College Environmental 
      Affairs Law Review 27, 47 p.  Retrieved Jabuary 26, 2010, from 
      LexisNexis Academic

Colson, D.A. (2001). Impact of federalism and border issues on Canada-U.S. relations: 
      Pacific Salmon Treaty. Canada-United States Law Journal 27, 259-266. Retrieved 
      October 25, 2013, from LexisNexis Academic database See also 
      
      Discussion, below.

 Discussion following the remarks of Mr. Colson and Mr. McRae. (2001). Canada-United  
      States Law Journal 27, 279-284. Retrieved January 12, 2010, from LexisNexis
      
      Academic.

McRae, D. (2001). Negotiation of the 1999 Pacific salmon agreement. Canada-
      United States  Law Journal 27, 267-268. Retrieved January 12, 2010, from  
      LexisNexis Academic. See also Discussion, above.

Miller, K.A.(1996, July). Salmon stock variability and the political economy 
      of the Pacific Salmon Treaty. Contemporary Economic Policy 14, 18p.  
      Retrieved January 26, 2010, from Academic OneFile

Miller, K.A., Munro, G., McKelvey, R., and Tyedmers, P. (2001). Climate, uncertainty 
      and the Pacific Salmon Treaty: Insights on the harvest management game. In: 
      Johnston, R.S. and Shriver, A.L. (Eds.) Microbehavior and macroresults: 
      Proceedings of the tenth biennial conference of the International Institute 
      of Fishery Economics and Trade (IIFET), 10-15 July 2000, Corvallis, OR. 
      Corvallis, OR: IIFET. Retrieved January 30, 2013, from 
      http://scholarsarchive.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/
      handle/1957/30733/267.pdf?sequence=1

Picker, C. (2001). Introduction: The Pacific salmon dispute. Canada-United States  
      Law Journal 27, 257. Retrieved January 12, 2010, from LexisNexis Academic

Physiology

See also Meador

Beamish, R., Wade, J., Pennell, W., Gordon, E., Jones, S., Neville, C., 
      … Sweeting, R. (2009). A large, natural infection of sea lice 
      on juvenile Pacific salmon in the Gulf Islands area of British 
      Columbia, Canada. Aquaculture, 31-37. 
      doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.09.001

Beamish, R.J., Neville, C.M., Sweeting, R.M., & Ambers, N. (2005). Sea 
      lice on adult Pacific salmon in the coastal waters of Central 
      British Columbia, Canada. Fisheries Research, 76, 198-208. 
      doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2005.06.007

Casselman, M.T., Anttila, K., & Farrell, A.P. (2012). Using 
      maximum heart rate as a rapid screening tool to determine optimum 
      temperature for aerobic scope in Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp.
      Journal of Fish Biology, 80, 358–377. 
      doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2011.03182.x

Clark, T.D. (2006, June). Physiological benefits of being small in a 
      changing world: Responses of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to 
      an acute thermal challenge and a simulated capture event. PloS one, 
      7, e39079. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039079

Farrell, A.P. & Clark, T.D. (2011). Effects of body mass on physiological
      and anatomical parameters of mature salmon: evidence against a 
      universal heart rate scaling exponent. Journal of Experimental 
      Biology 214, 887-893. doi: 10.1242/?jeb.051607

Ferguson,  J.A., Romer, J. Sifneos, J.C., Madsen, L., Schreck, C.B., Glynne, 
      M., Kent, M.L. (2012). Impacts of multispecies parasitism on juvenile coho 
      salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon. [Special issue:] Smolt 2009: 
      Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Smoltification. 
      Aquaculture, 362–363, 184–192. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.07.003

Forgan, L.G. & Forster, M.E. (2007). Effects of potential 
      mediators of an intestinal brake mechanism on gut motility in Chinook  
      salmon(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Comparative Biochemistry and  
      Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 146, 343-347. 
      doi:10.1016/j.cbpc.2007.04.007

Gallaugher, P.E., Thorarensen, H., Kiessling, A., & Farrell, A.P. (2001). Effects 
      of high intensity exercise training on cardiovascular function, oxygen 
      uptake, internal oxygen transport, and osmotic balance in chinook salmon 
      (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) during critical speed swimming. Journal of 
      Experimental Biology 204, 2861-272. Retrieved October 16, 2002, from 
      http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/content/full/204/16/2861

Gamperl, A.K., Vijayan, M.M., Pereira, C., & Farrell, A.P. (1998). [Beta]-
      Receptors and stress protein 70 expression in hypoxic myocardium of rainbow 
      trout and chinook salmon. American Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, 
      Integrative &  Comparative Physiology 274, R428-R436. Retrieved October 
      16, 2002, from http://ajpregu.physiology.org/cgi/content/full/274/2/R428

Katzman, S. & Cech , J.J. (2001). Juvenile coho salmon locomotion and mosaic 
      muscle are modified by 3',3',5'-tri-iodo-l-thyronine (T(3)). Journal of 
      Experimental Biology, 204: 1711 - 1717.  Retrieved January 14, 2004, from 
      http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/content/abstract/204/10/1711

Lundmark, C. (2001, October).  Salmon life stories recorded naturally. Bioscience
      51, 1/2p.  Retrieved january 26, 2010, from Academic OneFile

Macfarlane, B. &  Norton, E.C. (2002, April).  Physiological ecology of 
      juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at the southern end of 
      their distribution, the San Francisco Estuary and the Gulf of the Farallones, 
      California. Fishery Bulletin 100, 244-257. Retrieved June 14, 2002 from 
      http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1002/08macfar.pdf

McCovey, B.W. (2009). Lower Klamath River adult chinook salmon pathology
      monitoring, 2008. Hoopa, CA: Klamath River Division Yurok Tribal 
      Fisheries Program. Retrieved January 30, 2013, from 
      http://w.yuroktribe.org/departments/fisheries/documents/
      2008_adult_chinook_pathology_tech_memo_FINAL_000.pdf

Madison, B.N., Heath, J.W., Heath, D.D., & Bernier, N.J. (2013). Effect of parental 
      mate choice and semi-natural early rearing environment on the growth performance 
      and seawater tolerance of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Journal of 
      Fish Biology, 18, 618-636. doi:10.1111/jfb.12018

Meador, J.P., Sommers, F.C., Ylitalo, G.M., Sloan, C.A.  (2006). Altered growth 
      and related physiological responses in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus 
      tshawytscha) from dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
       Canadian Journal of Fisheries &amp; Aquatic Sciences, 63, 2364-2376. 
       doi:10.1139/F06-127

Milston, R.H., et al. (2003). Short-term exposure of chinook salmon (Oncoryhnchus 
      tshawytscha) to o,p'-DDE or DMSO during early life-history stages causes long-
      term humoral immunosuppression. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111, 
      1601-1607. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from Academic OneFile

Oxman, D.S., Barnett-Johnson, R., Smith, M.E., Coffin, A., Miller,
      D.L., Josephson, R., & Popper, A.N. (2007, November). The effect of vaterite 
      deposition on sound reception, otolith morphology, and inner ear sensory epithelia 
      in hatchery-reared Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).  Canadian 
      Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 64(11), 1469-1478. DOI:10.1139/F07-106
      Also available at http://www.barnett-johnson.com/uploads/1/9/9/0/1990941/
      oxman_et_al_cjfas.pdf

Pecquerie, L., Johnsion, L.R., Kooijman, S.A.L.M., & Nisbet, R.M. (2011). 
      Analyzing variations in life-history traits of Pacific salmon in the 
      context of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. Journal of Sea Research,
       66, 424–433. doi:10.1016/j.seares.2011.07.005

Sensor fish provides insight into salmon's journey. (2001, January). Civil 
      Engineering 71, 2/3 p.
      
       Note: The library subscribes to this journal.  If you are a distant student
      and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact the librarian at 
      503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.

Tanaka, H., Takagi, Y. & Naito, Y. (2001, November).  Swimming speeds and buoyancy
      compensation of adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta revealed by speed/depth/
      acceleration logger. Journal of Experimental Biology 204, 3895-3904.
      Retrieved October 21, 2002, from 
      http://jeb.biologists.org/cgi/content/full/204/22/3895.

Wiens, G.D., Pascho, R. & Winton, J.R. (2002). A  Single Ala139-to-Glu 
      Substitution in the Renibacterium salmoninarum Virulence-Associated Protein p57 
      Results in Antigenic Variation and Is Associated with Enhanced p57 Binding to 
      Chinook Salmon Leukocytes . Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68, 
      3969-3977. Retrieved January 14, 2004, from 
      http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/68/8/3969

Planning, Habitat restoration, & Management (See also under related topics, e.g., Dams)

See also Pelley

Allendorf, F.W., Bayles, D. & Williams, T.H. (1997, February). Prioritizing Pacific 
      salmon stocks for conservation. Conservation biology 11, 140-152.

      Note: The library subscribes to this journal.  If you are a distant student
      and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact the librarian at 
      503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.

Barringer, F. (2004, December 1). U.S. rules out dam removal to aid salmon. 
      New York Times, p. A1. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from LexisNexis Academic 


Botsford, L.W. & Brittnacher, J.G. (1998, February). Viability of Sacramento 
      River winter-run chinook salmon. Conservation Biology, 65-79.
      
      Note: The library subscribes to this journal. If 
      you are a distant student and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact
      the librarian at 503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.

Cornwell, T.J., Bottom, D.L. & Jones, K.K. (2001). Rearing of juvenile 
      salmon in recovering wetlands of the Salmon River estuary (Information 
      Reports 2001-05). Portland: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. 
      Retrieved October 24, 2002, from
      http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ODFW/freshwater/inventory/pdffiles/salmnrivrpt.pdf

Courbois, J.-Y., Katz, S.L., Isaak, D.J., Steel, E.A., Thurow, R.F., 
      Rub, A. M., Olsen, T., & Jordan, C.E. (2008, September). Evaluating probability 
      sampling strategies for estimating redd counts: an example with Chinook salmon
      (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 
      65(9), 1814(17). doi:10.1139/F08-092

Currens, K.P., Allendorf, F.W. & Williams, T..A. (1998, October) Conservation of 
      Pacific salmon: Response to Wainwright and Waples.  Conservation biology 12, 
      1148-1149.
      
      Note: Abstract only is available online. The library subscribes to this journal. If 
      you are a distant student and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact
      the librarian at 503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.

Feist, B. E., Steel, E. A., Pess,  G. R. & Bilby, R. E. (2003). The influence 
     of scale on salmon habitat restoration priorities. Animal Conservation, 6, 
     271-282. Retrieved December 10, 2004, from http://www.researchgate.net/
     publication/228950097_The_influence_of_scale_on_salmon_habitat_restoration_priorities/
     file/3deec515daa01498a7.pdf

Flitcroft, R., Jones, K., Reis, K., & Thom, B. (2002).  Year 2000 stream habitat 
      conditions in western Oregon: Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds 
      (Monitoring report No. OPSW-ODFW-2001-05). Corvallis: Oregon Department of 
      Fish and Wildlife. Retrieved October 28, 2002, from 
      http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ODFW/freshwater/inventory/pdffiles/orplanhab00.pdf 

Friesen, T.A. (Ed.) (2005, March). Biology, behavior, and resources of resident 
      and anadromous fish in the Lower Willamette River: Final report of 
      research, 2000-2004. Clackamas, OR: Oregon Department of Fish and 
      Wildlife.  Reitrieved January 30, 2013, from http://www.dfw.state.or.us/
      fish/oscrp/CRI/docs/wfsreport2005-Final.pdf

Good, T. P., T. K. Harms, M. H. Ruckelshaus. (2003). Misuse of checklist 
      assessments in endangered species recovery efforts. Conservation 
      Ecology, 7(2), article 12. Retrieved December 10, 2004, from
      http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol7/iss2/art12/

Halsing, D.L., & Moore, M.R. (2008, April). Cost-effective management alternatives 
      for Snake River Chinook salmon: A biological-economic synthesis. Conservation 
      Biology, 22(2), 338-350. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00913.x

Halsing, D.L., & Moore, M.R. (April 2009). Cost-effective management of      Snake River Chinook salmon: Response to Wilson et al.  Conservation 
      Biology, 23(2), 479-481. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01171.x 

Hamilton, J.R. (1999). Modeling the reallocation of Snake River water for 
      endangered salmon. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 81(5), 5p. 
      Retrieved December 3, 2009 from Infotrac Agriculture Collection database

Jaeger, W.K. & Mikesell, R. (2002, October). Increasing streamflow to sustain salmon 
      and  other native fish in the Pacific Northwest.. Contemporary Economic Policy 20, 
      366-380. Retrieved January 14, 2010, from Academic OneFile

Knickerbocker, B. (2004, December 2). Bush plan on dams rekindles salmon debate. Christian 
      Science Monitor, p. 2. Retrieved December 7, 2009, from Academic OneFile

Kosub, D. (2005, January). Sound Findings. Scientific American, 292, 22-23.
      
       Note: The library subscribes to this journal.  If you are a distant student
      and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact the librarian at 
      503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.

Landers, J. (2004, November). Plan to restore salmon calls for removable 
      spillway weirs. Civil Engineering 74, 17-18. 
      
       Note: The library subscribes to this journal.  If you are a distant student
      and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact the librarian at 
      503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.

MacCall, A.D. & Wainwright, T.C. (eds.). (2003). Assessing extinction risk for west 
      coast salmon: Proceedings of the workshop November 13-19, 1996, Seattle, Washington 
      (NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-56). U.S. Department of Commerce.  Retrieved 
      January 9, 2004, from http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/publications/techmemos/tm56/tm56.pdf

McClure, M. M., E. E. Holmes, B. L. Sanderson, C. E. Jordan. (2003). A large-scale, 
      multispecies status assessment: anadromous salmonids in the Columbia River Basin. 
      Ecological Applications, 13, 964-989.  Retrieved October 25, 2013, from
      http://www.esajournals.org/toc/ecap/current

Mann, C.C. (2000, August 4). Can science rescue salmon? Science 289, 4p. Retrieved 
      January 26, 2010 from Academic OneFile

      A reply ("Many plans, one bottom line") to this article appears below.

Many plans, one bottom line: Save endangered salmon. (September 29, 2000). 
      Science 289, 2 p. Retrieved January 26, 2010 from  Academic 
      OneFile

Marmorek, D. & Peters, C. (2001).  Finding a PATH toward scientific collaboration:
      insights from the Columbia River Basin.  Conservation Ecology 15. Retrieved
      December 10, 2003, from http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss2/art8/.

Miller, B. A., & Sadro, S. (2003). Residence time and seasonal movements of juvenile 
      coho salmon in the ecotone and lower estuary of Winchester Creek, South Slough, 
      Oregon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 132(3), 546-559. 
      Retrieved October 25, 2013, from http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/utaf20/current

Peery, C.A., Kavanaugh, K.I. & Scott, J.M. (2003). Pacific salmon: Setting ecologically 
      defensible recovery goals. Bioscience 53, p. 622-623. Retrieved December 10, 2009 
      from Academic OneFile

Peters, C.N. & Marmorek, D.R. (2001). Application of decision analysis to evaluate
      recovery actions for threatened Snake River fall chinook salmon 
      (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal Of Fisheries and Aquatic 
      Science 58,  2447-2458. Retrieved October 24, 2013 from
      http://essa.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/fall_da.pdf

Roper, B.B., Buffington, J.M., Bennett, S., Lanigan, S.H., Archer, E. 
      Downie, S.T., . . . Pleus, A. (2010). 
      A comparison of the performance and compatibility of 
      protocols used by seven monitoring groups to measure stream habitat 
      in the Pacific Northwest. North American Journal of Fisheries 
      Management, 30, 565–587. Retrieved from 
      http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_2010_roper_b001.pdf

Roth, J.E., Mills, K.L., & Sydeman, W.J. (August 2007). Chinook salmon 
      (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)--seabird covariation off central California 
      and possible forecasting applications.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries 
      and Aquatic Sciences, 64,(8), 1080-1190.  doi:10.1139/F07-081

Sabo, J.L., Holmes, E. & Kareiva, P. (2004). Efficacy of simple viability 
      models in ecological risk assessment: Does density dependence matter? 
      Ecology, 85, 328-341. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from 
      JSTOR

Shaklee, J.B., Beacham, T.D., Seeb, L., & White, B.A. (1999). Managing 
      fisheries using genetic data: case studies from four species of Pacific 
      salmon. Fisheries Research, 43, 45-78. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(99)00066-1

Thom, B.A., Kavanaugh, P.S. & Jones, K.K. (2001).  Reference site selection and 
      survey results: Oregon Plan For Salmon And Watersheds 2000  (Monitoring 
      Report No. OPSW-ODFW-2001-6). Corvallis: Oregon Department of Fish and 
      Wildlife. Retrieved October 28, 2002, from 
      http://oregonstate.edu/dept/ODFW/freshwater/inventory/pdffiles/reffinal.pdf

Utz, R.M., Mesick, C.F., Cardinale, B.J., & Dunne, T. (2013). How does coarse 
      gravel augmentation affect early-stage Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha 
      embryonic survivorship?  Journal of Fish Biology, 82, 1484-1496. 
      doi:10.1111/jfb.12085

Wainwright, T.C. & Waples, R.S. (1998, October). Prioritizing Pacific salmon 
      stocks for conservation: Response to Allendorf et al.Conservation biology 12, 
      1144-1147. Retrieved Feburary 4, 2011, from http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/publications/BrownBag/
      publications/2006_2007/Allendorfetal1997response1.pdf
      
      Note: The library subscribes to this journal. If you are
      a distant student and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact
      the librarian at 503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.
      

Wilson, P.S., Schaller, H.A., Petrosky, C.E. & Loomis, J. (2009). 
      Judging cost-effectiveness of management of Snake River salmon: Response to 
      Halsing and Moore. Conservation Biology, 23(2), 475-478.
      doi:10/1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01170.x

Winship, A. J., O'Farrell, M. R., & Mohr, M. S. (2013). Management strategy evaluation 
      applied to the conservation of an endangered population subject to incidental take. 
      Biological Conservation, 158, 155-166. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.08.031

Wondzell, S.M., Przeszlowska, A., Pflugmacher, D., Hemstrom, M.A. Bisson, P.A.  (2012).  
      Modeling the dynamic responses of riparian vegetation and salmon habitat in the 
      Oregon coast range with state and transition models. In B.K. Kerns, A.  Shlisky, 
      & C.J.Daniel (Eds.), Proceedings of the First Landscape State-and-Transition 
      Simulation Modeling Conference, June 14–16, 2011, Portland, Oregon (General 
      Technical Report PNW-GTR-869), pp. 173-196. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of 
      Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Retrieved 
      October 25, 2013, from  http://www.treesearch.fs.fed.us/pubs/42577

Population Genetics

See also Heath, Hedrick, Nagler, Osachoff, & Shaklee

Beacham, T.D., et al. (2003, April). Evaluation and application of microsatellites 
      for population identification of Fraser River chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus 
      tshawytscha). Fishery Bulletin 101, p. 243-259. Retrieved May 27, 2003, 
      from http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1012/04beacha.pdf.

Beacham, T.D., et al. (2003, April). The geographic basis for population structure
      in Fraser River chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Fishery Bulletin 
      101, p. 229-242. Retrieved May 27, 2003, from 
      http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1012/03beacha.pdf.

Brunelli, J.P., Wertzler, K.J., Sundin, K., & Thorgaard, G.H. (2008, September).
      Y-specific sequences and polymorphisms in rainbow trout and Chinook 
      salmon.  Genome, 51(9), 739-748. doi:10.1139/G08-060.

Candy, J.R., Bonnell, R.G., Beacham, T.D., Wallace, C.G., & Withler, R.E.
       (2009, January). Dividing population genetic distance data with the software 
       Partitioning Optimization with Restricted Growth Strings (PORGS): an application 
       for Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Vancouver Island, British 
       Columbia.  Fishery Bulletin, 107(1), 45-66. 

Gharrett, Anthony J., Gray, Andrew K., &Brykov, Vladimir (2001).  
      Phylogeographic analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation in Alaskan coho 
      salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Fishery Bulletin 99, 528-544. Retrieved 
      July 10, 2002, from http://fishbull.noaa.gov/994/gha.pdf

Hard, J. (2010). Simulating Fishery-Induced Evolution in Chinook 
      Salmon: The Role of Gear, Location, and Genetic Correlation Among Traits. 
      Ecological Applications, 20, p. 1936-1948. Retrieved February 4, 
      2011, from http://www.academia.edu/343824/
      Simulating_Fishery-Induced_Evolution_in_Chinook_
      Salmon_The_Role_of_Gear_Location_and_Genetic_Correlation_Among_Traits

Heath, D.D., Shrimpton, J.M., Hepburn, R.I., Jamieson, S.K., Brode, S.K.; Docker, 
      M.F. (2006). Population structure and divergence using microsatellite and 
      gene locus markers in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) 
      populations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 63, 1370-1383. 
      doi:10.1139/f06-044

Kim, T.J., Parker, K.M., and Hedrick, P.W. (1999). Major histocompatibility 
     complex differentiation in Sacramento River chinook salmon. Genetics 151, 
     1115-1122. Retrieved October 21, 2002, from 
     http://www.genetics.org/cgi/content/full/151/3/1115

Nelson, H., Isaak, D., Thurow, R., Dunham, J. & Rieman, B. (2006, June). Microsatellite 
      variation reveals weak genetic structure and retention of genetic 
      variability in threatened Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) 
      within a Snake River watershed. [Preprint of article from] Conservation 
      Genetics, DOI 10.1007/s10592-006-9155-4. Retrieved December 6, 2006, from 
      http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/publications/fisheries/rmrs_2007_nevilleh001.pdf

Nelson, R.J., Small, M.P., Beacham, T.D. & Supernault, J.K. 
      (2001). Population structure of Fraser River chinook salmon 
      (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): an analysis using microsatellite DNA markers.  
      Fishery Bulletin 99, 94-107.  
      Retrieved June 14, 2002, from http://fishbull.noaa.gov/991/9.pdf

O'Malley, K.G., Jacobson, D.P., Kurth, R., Dill, A.J., & Banks, M.A. (2013). Adaptive 
      genetic markers discriminate migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus 
      tshawytscha) amid continued gene flow. Evolutionary Applications. 
      Advance online pubication: doi:10.1111/eva.12095

Smoker, William W., Gharrett, A.J., Stekoll, Michael S., & Taylor, S.G. (2000, 
      Summer). Genetic  variation of fecundity and egg size in anadromous pink salmon 
      Oncorhynchus gorbuscha Walbaum. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 7, 44-50. 
      Retrieved January 14, 2013, from 
      http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static/home/library/pdfs/afrb/smokerv7.pdf

Teel, D.J., Van Doornik, D.M., & Kuligowski, D.R. (2003). Genetic analysis of 
      juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) off Oregon and Washington reveals 
      few Columbia River wild fish. Fishery Bulletin 101, 640-652.  Retrieved 
      January 9, 2004, from http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1013/14teelfi.pdf

von Schalburg, K.R., Yazawa, R., de Boer, J., Lubieniecki, K.P., Goh, B., 
     Straub, C.A., Beetz-Sargent, &hellip; Koop, B.F. (2008, November 3). Isolation, 
     characterization and comparison of Atlantic and Chinook salmon growth hormone 
     1 and 2.  BMC Genomics, 9, 522.  doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-522

Waples, R.S. (2002). Effective size of fluctuating salmon populations. 
      Genetics 161, 783-791. Retrieved October 21, 2002, from 
      http://www.genetics.org/cgi/content/full/161/2/783

Walter, R.P., Aykanat, T., Kelly, D.W., Shrimpton, J.M., & Heath, D.D. 
      (2009, February). Gene flow increases temporal stability of Chinook salmon 
      (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in the Upper Fraser River, British 
      Columbia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 
      66(2), 167-176. doi:10.1139/F08-201

Population Studies, General (See also Population Genetics)

See also Zabel

Anderson, J.H. (2011). Dispersal and reproductive success of Chinook 
      (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon colonizing 
      newly accessible habitat.  (Doctoral thesis). U. Washington
      Retrieved fromhttp://fish.washington.edu/research/
      publications/ms_phd/Anderson_J_PhD_W11.pdf

Backus, D.H., Butler, V.L., Kent, A.J.R., Jessica A. Miller, J.A., & 
      Simenstad, C.A. (2011). Life history variation in upper Columbia 
      River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): a comparison using 
      modern and ~500-year-old archaeological otoliths. Canadian Journal of 
      Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 68, 603-617. doi:10.1139/F2011-002

Beauchamp, D.A. & Duffy, E.J. (2011). Rapid growth in the early 
      marine period improves the marine survival of Chinook salmon 
      (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Puget Sound, Washington. Canadian 
      Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 68, 232-240. 
      doi:10.1139/F10-144

Becker, L.A., Pascual, M.A., & Basso, N.G. (2007, October). Colonization 
      of the Southern Patagonia ocean by exotic Chinook salmon.  Conservation  
      Biology 21(5), 1347-1352. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2007.00761.x
      
      Note: Abstract only is available online. The library subscribes to this journal. If 
      you are a distant student and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact
      the librarian at 503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.

Bradford, M J, Duncan, J., & Jang, J W (Sept 2008). Downstream 
      migrations of juvenile salmon and other fishes in the upper Yukon 
      River.  Arctic, 61(3), 255-264.  Retrieved January
      27, 2010, from http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic61-3-255.pdf

Brodeur, R.D., Fisher, J.P., Teel, D.J., Emmett, R.L., Casillas, E., and Miller, T.W. 
      (2004). Juvenile salmonid distribution, growth, condition, origin, and environmental 
      and species associations in the Northern California Current. Fishery Bulletin 
      102, 25-46. Retrieved May 28, 2004, from http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1021/brodeur.pdf

Carlson, Stan R., Coggins, Lewis G., Jr., & Swanton, Charles O. (1998, Winter). A 
      simple stratified design for mark-recapture estimation of salmon smolt 
      abundance. Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 5, 88-102.  Retrieved June 14, 
      2002 from 
      http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static-f/home/library/PDFs/afrb/carlv5n2.pdf

Cromwell, K.J. & Kennedy, B.P. (2011).  Diel distribution, behaviour 
      and consumption of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus 
      tshawytscha) in a wilderness stream. Ecology of 
      Freshwater Fish 20, 421–430. doi:10.1111/
      j.1600-0633.2011.00512.x

Dietrich, J.P., Boylen, D.A., Thompson, D.E., Loboschefsky, E.J., 
      Bravo, C.F., Spangenberg, D.K., . . . Loge,F.J. (2011) An evaluation 
      of the influence of stock origin and out-migration history on the 
      disease susceptibility and survival of juvenile chinook salmon. 
      Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 23, 35-47. doi:10.1080/
	  08997659.2011.568859

Fleming, I.A., & Koseki, Y. (2007). Large-scale frequency dynamics of alternative 
      male phenotypes in natural populations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): 
      patterns, processes, and implications.  Canadian Journal of Fisheries and 
      Aquatic Sciences, 64, 743-753.  doi:10.1139/F07-046

Gurarie, E., Anderson, J J, & Zabel, R W (August 2009).
      Continuous models of population-level heterogeneity inform
      analysis of animal dispersal and migration.  Ecology, 90(8),
      2233-242.  doi:10.1890/08-0359.1 

Halupka, K.C., Mryant, M.D. & Everest, F.D. (2000). Biological characteristics and 
      population status of anadromous salmon in southeast Alaska (General Technical 
      Report PNW-GTR-468). Portland, Or.: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest 
      Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. Retrieved October 24, 2002 from
      http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw/pubs/gtr468.pdf	

Helmbrecht, S., &Boughton, D.A. (2005, August). Recent efforts to monitor 
      anadromous Oncorhynchus species in the California coastal region: A 
      compilation of metadata (NOAA technical memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-381). 
      Santa Cruz, CA: National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries 
      Science Center. Retrieved January 11, 2007. from 
      http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/FED/00607.pdf

Holmes, E. E. (2004). Beyond theory to application and evaluation: diffusion 
      approximations for population viability analysis. Ecological Applications, 14, 1272-1293.
      Retrieved December 10, 2004, from 
      http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/assets/2/6187_11172004_181136_holmes2004.pdf

Isaak, D.J. & Thurow, R.F. (2006). Network-scale spatial and temporal variation in Chinook 
      salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) redd distributions: patterns inferred from spatially 
      continuous replicate surveys. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 63, 
      85-296. doi:10.1139/F05-214

Koski, K.V. (2009). The fate of coho salmon nomads: The story of an 
      estuarine-rearing strategy promoting resilience. Ecology and Society, 
      14.1. Retrieved October 25, 2012, from 
      http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/

Myers, J., Busack, C., Rawding, D.,  &Marshall, A. (2003, July). 
      Historical population structure of of Willamette and Lower Columbia River 
      basin Pacific salmonids  . Seattle, WA: National Marine Fisheries Service, 
      Northwest Fisheries Science Center. Retrieved October 24, 2013, from 
      http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/staff/displayallinfo.cfm?docmetadataid=6490

      (19 Megabytes. Direct URL: http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/assets/25/
      6490_04042006_153011_PopIdTM73Final.pdf

Ratner, S., Lande, R. & Roper, B.B. (1997). Population viability analysis of spring 
      chinook salmon in the South Umpqua River, Oregon. Conservation biology 11,
      879. 

      Note: The library subscribes to this journal.  If you are a distant student
      and cannot use the paper version of this journal, contact the librarian at 
      503-399-5231 or reference@chemeketa.edu to obtain a copy of the article.

Schaller, H.A., Petrosky, C.E., & Langness, O.P. (1999). Contrasting patterns of 
      productivity and survival rates for stream- type chinook salmon (Onchorynchus 
      tshawytscha) populations of the Snake and Columbia rivers. Canadian Journal 
      of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 56, 1031-1045. Retrieved January 30, 
      2013 from https://research.idfg.idaho.gov/Fisheries%20Research%20Reports/
      Res-Petrosky1998%20Contrasting%20Patterns%20of%20Productivity%20
      and%20Survival%20for%20Stream-Type%20Chinook%20Pop%20of%20Snake-Columbia%20Rivers.pdf

Spence, B.C., Harris, S.L. , Jones, W.E., Goslin, M.N., Agrawal, A. & Mora, E. 
      (2005, October). Historical occurrence of coho salmon in streams of the 
      Central California Coast Coho Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit. (NOAA 
      Technical memorandum NOAA/TM/NMFS/SWFSC-383). Santa Cruz, CA: National Marine 
      Fisheries Service, Southwest Fisheries Science Center. Retrieved January 11, 
      2007, from http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/FED/00768.pdf

Thedinga, John F., Johnson, Scott W., & Koski, K.V. (1998, Winter). Age and marine 
      survival of ocean-type chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Situk 
      River, Alaska.Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 5, 143-148. Retrieved June 14,
      2002, from 
      http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/static-f/home/library/PDFs/afrb/thedv5n2.pdf

Tucker, S., Trudel, M., Welch, D.W., Candy, J.R., Morris, J.F.T., Thiess, 
      M.E., . . . Beacham, T.D.  (2012). Annual coastal migration of 
      juvenile Chinook salmon: static stock-specific patterns in a highly 
      dynamic ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series 449, 245-262. 
      doi: 10.3354/meps09528

Weitkamp. L.A., Bentley, P.J., & Litz, M.N.C. (2012). Seasonal and interannual  
      variation in juvenile salmonids and associated fish assemblage in open waters 
      of the lower Columbia River estuary. Fishery Bulletin, 110, 426-450.  
      Retrieved October 23, 2013, from http://fishbull.noaa.gov/

Williams, T. H., et al. (2006, June). Historical population structure of coho 
      salmon in the Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Evolutionarily 
      Significant Unit (NOAA Technical Memorandum OAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-390). 
      La Jolla, CA: National Marine Fisheries Service,  Southwest Fisheries 
      Science Center. Retrieved January 12, 2007, from 
      http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/TM/SWFSC/NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-390.PDF

Woodson, L.E., Wells, B.K., Weber, P.K., MacFarlane, R.B., Whitman, G.E., & 
      Johnson, R.C. (2013). Size, growth, and origin-dependent mortality
      of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha during early 
      ocean residence. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 487, 163-175. 
      doi: 10.3354/meps10353

Predation

See also Salas and Moore

Adrean, L. J., Roby, D. D., Lyons, D. E., Collis, K., & Evans, A. F. (2012). 
      Potential effects of management on Caspian tern Hydroprogne caspia predation 
      on juvenile salmonids at a colony in San Francisco Bay, California. 
      Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 141(6), 1682-1696.
      doi: 10.1080/00028487.2012.713886

Adrean, L.J. (2011). Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) foraging 
      ecology and predation on juvenile salmonids in San Francisco Bay, 
      California. (Master's thesis). Retrieved from 
      http://scholarsarchive.library.oregonstate.edu/
      xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/22008/AdreanLindsayJ2011.pdf?sequence=1

Anderson, C.D., Roby, D.D., & Collis, K. (2004). Foraging patterns of male and 
      female double-crested cormorants nesting in the Columbia River estuary. 
      Canadian Journal of Zoology 82, 541-554.  doi:10.1139/Z04-019

Anderson, S.K., Roby, D.D., Lyons, D.E. & Collis, K. (2005). Factors 
      affecting chick provisioning by Caspian terns nesting in the 
      Columbia River Estuary. Waterbirds 28, 95-105. Retrieved 
      January 16, 2013, from http://people.oregonstate.edu/~lyonsd/
      andersonetal2005.pdf

Antolos, M., Roby, D.D. & Lyons, D.E. (2005). Caspian tern predation 
      on juvenile salmonids in the mid-Columbia River. Transactions of 
      the American Fisheries Society 134, 466-480.  Retrieved January 16,
      2013, from http://people.oregonstate.edu/~lyonsd/antolosetal2005.pdf

Barnas, K.A., Rub, A.M.W., & Sanderson, B.L. (2009). Nonindigenous 
      species of the Pacific Northwest: an overlooked risk to 
      endangered salmon? BioScience, 59, 245-256. doi:10.1525/
      bio.2009.59.3.9

Bayer, R. (2000). Cormorant harrassment to protect juvenile salmonids in Tillamook
      County, Oregon.  Studies in Oregon Ornithology No. 9. Newport, OR: Gahmken. 
      Retrieved October 11, 2002, from 
      http://www.oregonvos.net/~rbayer/salmon/s9a.htm

Bayer, R.D. (2003). "Review: Bird Predation of Juvenile Salmonids and Management 
      of Birds Near 14 Columbia Basin Dams. Yaquina Studies in Natural History 
      No. 10. Newport, OR: Gahmken. Retrieved January 2, 2013, from 
      http://scholarsarchive.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/8430

Browne, P., Laake, J.L. & DeLong, R.L. (2002). Improving pinniped diet analyses 
      through identification of multiple skeletal structures in fecal samples. Fishery 
      Bulletin 100, 423-433. Retrieved May 28, 2004, from
      http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1003/04browne.pdf

Carey, M. P., Sanderson, B. L., Barnas, K. A., & Olden, J. D. (2012). Native 
      invaders-challenges for science, management, policy, and society. Frontiers 
      in Ecology and the Environment, 10(7), 373-381. doi:10.1890/110060

Caudill, C. C., Clabough, T. S., Jepson, M. A., Keefer, M. L., Lee, S. R.,
      Naughton, G. P., & Peery, C. A. (2011). Influence of pinniped-caused 
      injuries on the survival of adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus 
      tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the 
      Columbia River basin. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic 
      Sciences, 68, 1615-1624. doi:10.1139/F2011-064

Collis, K., Roby, D.D., Craig, D.P., Adamany, S., Adkins, J.Y., & Lyons, D.E. (2002). 
      Colony size and diet composition of piscivorous waterbirds on the lower
      Columbia River: Implications for losses of juvenile salmonids to avian
      predation. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131, 537-550.
      Retrieved May 2, 2005, from http://oregonstate.edu/robylab/collisetal2002.pdf.

Collis, K., Roby, D.D., Craig, D.P., Ryan, B.A., & Ledgerwood, R.D. (2001). 
      Colonial waterbird predation on juvenile salmonids tagged with passive 
      integrated transponders in the Columbia River estuary: Vulnerability 
      of different salmonid species, stocks, and rearing types. 
      Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 130,385-396. Retrieved 
      May 2, 2005, from http://oregonstate.edu/robylab/collisetal2001.pdf

Collis, K., Roby, D. D., Larson, K. W., Adrean, L. J., Nelson, S. K., Evans, A. F., 
      ... & Patterson, A. (2012). Trends in Caspian tern nesting and diet in San 
      Francisco Bay: conservation implications for terns and salmonids. Waterbirds, 
      35(1), 25-34. Retrieved October 24, 2013, from http://www.waterbirds.org/journal

Emmett, R.L. (1996). Estuarine survival of salmonids: the importance of 
      interspecific and intraspecific predation and competition. In R.L. Emmett 
      and M. Schiewe (Eds.) Estuarine and ocean survival of northeastern Pacific 
      salmon, proceedings of the workshop March 20-22, 1996, Newport, Oregon. 
      Seattle, WA: Northwest Fisheries Science Center.  Retrieved January 12, 2004, from 
      http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/publications/techmemos/tm29/papers/emmett.htm

Emmett, R.L., Bentley, P.J. & Krutzikowsky, G.K. (2001) Ecology of marine predatory 
      and prey fishes off the Columbia River, 1998 and 1999 (NOAA Technical
      Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-51). U.S. Department of Commerce.  Retrieved January
      12, 2004 from http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/publications/techmemos/tm51/tm51.html

Emmett, R.L., & Krutzikowsky, G.K. (2008). Nocturnal feeding of Pacific 
      hake and jack mackerel off the mouth of the Columbia River, 1998-2004: 
      Implications for juvenile salmon predation. Transactions of the 
      American Fisheries Society, 137, 657-676. doi:10.1577/T06-058.

Evans, A. F., Hostetter, N. J., Roby, D. D., Collis, K., Lyons, D. E., Sandford, 
      B. P., ... & Sebring, S. (2012). Systemwide evaluation of avian predation on 
      juvenile salmonids from the Columbia River based on recoveries of passive 
      integrated transponder tags. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 
      141(4), 975-989.

Evans, A.F., Roby, D.D., Collis, K., Cramer, B.M. Sheggeby,Andrean, L.J. 
      ... Lyons, D.E. (2011). Recovery of coded wire tags at a Caspian Tern 
      colony in San Francisco Bay: A technique to evaluate impacts of avian 
      predation on juvenile salmonids. North American Journal of Fisheries 
      Management 31, 79–87. doi: : 10.1080/02755947.2011.562429

Ford, J. K., & Ellis, G. M. (2006). Selective foraging by fish-eating killer 
      whales Orcinus orca in British Columbia. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 
      316, 185-199. Retrieved October 25, 2013, from http://www.int-res.com/
      journals/meps/meps-home/

Foster, E.A., Frank, D.W., Morrell, L.J., Balcomb, K.C., Parson, 
      K.M., van Ginneken, A., & Croft, D.P. (2012). Social network correlates 
      of food availability in an endangered population of killer whales, 
      Orcinus orca. Animal Behaviour, 83, 731–736. 
      doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2011.12.021

Hanson, M., Baird, R. W., Ford, J. K., Hempelmann-Halos, J., Van Doornik, 
      D. M., Candy, J. R., ... & Ford, M. J. (2010). Species and stock 
      identification of prey consumed by endangered southern resident killer 
      whales in their summer range. Endangered Species Research, 11, 69-82.
      doi: 10.3354/esr00263

Independent Multidisciplinary Science Team. (1998). Pinniped and and seabird 
      predation: implications for recovery of threatened stocks of salmonids in 
      Oregon under the  Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds (Technical report 
      1998-2 to the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds). Salem, OR: Governor's 
      Natural Resources Office. 29 p. Retrieved February 25, 2003, from 
      http://www.fsl.orst.edu/imst/reports/1998-2.pdf

Kuehne, L.M. & Olden, J.D. (2012). Prey naivety in the behavioural 
      responses of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to an 
      invasive predator. Freshwater Biology, 57, 1126–1137. doi:10.1111/
      j.1365-2427.2012.02776.x

Laake, J.L., Browne,  P., DeLong, R.L., Huber,  H.R. (2002). Pinniped diet 
      composition: a comparison of estimation models. Fishery Bulletin 100, 
      434-447. Retrieved May 28, 2004, from http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1003/05laakef.pdf

Lance, M. M., Chang, W. Y., Jeffries, S. J., Pearson, S. F., & Acevedo-Gutiérrez, A. 
      (2012). Harbor seal diet in northern Puget Sound: implications for the recovery of 
      depressed fish stocks.  Marine Ecology Progress Series, 464, 257-271. 
      doi: 10.3354/meps09880

Lindley, S.T. & Mohr, M.S. (2003). Modeling the effect of striped bass 
      (Morone saxatilis) on the population viability of Sacramento River 
      winter-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Fishery Bulletin 101, 
      p. 321-331. Retrieved May 27, 2003, from 
      http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1012/10lindle.pdf

Lyons, D.E., & Roby, D.D. (2007). Foraging Patterns of Caspian terns and 
      double-crested cormorants in the Columbia River estuary. Northwest 
      Science, 81, 91.103. Retrieved January 16, 2013, from 
      http://www.northwestscience.org/Default.aspx?pageId=937324

McMichael, G. A., Hanson, A. C., Harnish, R. A., & Trott, D. M. (2013). Juvenile 
      salmonid migratory behavior at the mouth of the Columbia River and within the 
      plume. Animal Biotelemetry, 1(1), 1-16. Retrieved October 24, 2013, from 
      http://www.animalbiotelemetry.com

National Marine Fisheries Service. (1997, March). Investigation of scientific 
      information on the impacts of California sea lions and Pacific harbor seals on 
      salmonids and on the  coastal ecosystems of Washington, Oregon, and California
      (NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-28). Seattle: Author. Retrieved May 28, 2004,
      from http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/publications/techmemos/tm28/tm28.htm

National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Region. (2006, October). Designation 
      of critical habitat for southern resident killer whales: Biological report. 
      Seattle, WA: The service. Retrieved October 10, 2013, from 
      http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/publications/protected_species/marine_mammals/cetaceans/
      killer_whales/esa_status/srkw-ch-bio-rpt.pdf

Orr, A.J., Banks, A.S., Mellman, S., Huber, H.R. & DeLong, R. (2004). Examination 
      of the foraging habits of Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) to
      describe their use of the Umpqua River, Oregon, and their predation on 
      salmonids. Fishery Bulletin 102, 108-117. Retrieved May 28, 2004, from 
      http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1021/orr.pdf
Also available through Academic OneFile

Patterson, A.,  (2012). Breeding and foraging ecology of Caspian terns nesting 
      on artificial islands in the Upper Klamath Basin (Unpublished master's 
      thesis). Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Petersen, J.H. (2002).  Compensatory feeding following a predator removal program: 
      detection and mechanisms, Report to Bonneville Power Administration. Portland: 
      U.S. Geological Survey Western Fisheries Research Center Columbia River 
      Research Laboratory (BPA Report DOE/BP-00003395-1). doi:10.2172/797030

Purcell, M., Mackey, G., LaHood, E., Huber, H. & Park, L. (2004). Molecular methods 
      for the genetic identification of salmonid prey from Pacific harbor seal 
      (Phoca vitulina richardsi) scat Fishery Bulletin 102, 213-220. Retrieved 
      May 28, 2003, from http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1021/purcell.pdf.

Roby, D.D., Collis, K., & Lyons, D.E. (2003). Conservation and Management 
      for Fish-Eating Birds and Endangered Salmon. In C.J. Ralph & T.D. Rich 
      (Eds.) Bird conservation implementation and integration in the Americas: 
      Proceedings of the third International Partners in Flight Conference, 2002, 
      Asilomar, California (General Technical Report PSW-GTR-191). [Albany, 
      CA];U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,  Pacific Southwest Research 
      Station.  Retrieved October 25, 2013, from http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/
      documents/psw_gtr191/Asilomar/pdfs/161-165.pdf

Roby, D.D., Collis, K., Lyons, D.E., Craig, D.P., Adkins, J., Myers, A.M., et al. 
      (2002). Effects of colony relocation on diet and productivity of Caspian 
      terns. Journal of Wildlife Management 66, 662-673. Retrieved May 2, 2005,
      from http://www.columbiabirdresearch.org/Publications/JWMv66.PDF

Roby, D.D., Lyons, D.E., Craig, D.P., Collis, K., & Visser, G.H. (2003). Quantifying 
      the effects of predators on endangered species using a bioenergetics 
      approach: Caspian terns and juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River estuary. 
      Canadian Journal of Zoology 81, 250-265. doi:
      10.1139/Z02-242

Schreck, C.B., Stahl, T.P., Davis, L.E., Roby, D.D., & Clemens, B.J. (2006). 
      Mortality estimates of juvenile spring-summer Chinook slamon in the lower 
      Columbia River and Estuary, 1992-1998: Evidence for delayed mortality?. 
      Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 135 457-475.

Suzuki, Y. (2012). Piscivorous colonial waterbirds in the Columbia River estuary: 
      demography, dietary contaminants, and management (Unpublished doctoral 
      dissertation). Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University.

Takata, H.T., Reesman, M.J., Reed, G.E., Layng, L.D. and Jones, T.A. (2007).
       Development of a system-wide predator control program: indexing 
       and fisheries evaluation. 2006 Annual Report. Contract 
       DE-B1719-94BI24514, Bonneville Power Administration, Portland , Oregon. 
       Retrieved January 30, 2013, from http://www.dfw.state.or.us/
       fish/oscrp/CRI/docs/2006-Pikeminnow-AR.pdf

Williams, R., Krkosek, M., Ashe, e. Branch, T., Clark, S., Hammond, P.S., 
       ... Winship, A. (2011). Competing conservation objectives for 
       predators and prey: Estimating killer whale prey requirements 
       for Chinook salmon. PLOS One, 6, e26738.  doi:10.1371/
       journal.pone.0026738

Winship, A.j. & Trites, A.W. (2003). Prey consumption of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias 
      jubatus) off Alaska: How much prey do they require?. Fishery Bulletin, 
      101, 147-167. Retrieved November 21, 2006, from 
      http://fishbull.noaa.gov/1011/12winshi.pdf

Wright, B.E., Riemer, S.D., Brown, R.F., Ougzin, A.M., & Bucklin, 
      K.A. (2007). Assessment of harbor seal predation on adult salmonids 
      in a Pacific Northwest estuary. Ecological Applications, 17, 
      338-351. Retrieved January 30, 2013, from JSTOR

Terrestrial & Riparian Ecosystems, Relationship with

Fausch, K.D., Torgersen, C.E., Baxter, C.V., Li, H.W. (2002). Landscapes to 
      riverscapes: bridging the gap between research and conservation of stream 
      fishes. Bioscience 52, 483-498. Retrieved January 13, 2010 from 
      Academic OneFile

Gende, S. (2003, April). Fin tuning. Natural History 112, p. 24. Retrieved December 10, 
      2003 from Academic OneFile

Gende, S.M., Edwards, R.T., Willson, M.F., Wipfli, M.S. (2002).
      Pacific salmon in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Bioscience 52, 
      p. 917-926. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from Academic OneFile

Hocking, M.D., & Reimchen, T.E. (2002, March 19). Salmon-derived nitrogen in 
      terrestrial invertebrates from coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. 
      BMC Ecology 2, 4. Retrieved January 14, 2004, from 
      http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6785/2/4/abstract

Mathewson, D.D., Hocking, M.D., & Reimchen, T.E. (2003, May 3). Nitrogen uptake 
      in riparian plant communities across a sharp ecological boundary of salmon 
      density. BMC Ecology 3, 4. Retrieved January 14, 2004, from 
      http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6785/3/4/abstract

Meehan, E.P., Seminet-Reneau, E.E. & Quinn, T.P. (2005). Bear predation 
      on Pacific salmon facilitates colonization of carcasses by fly 
      maggots. American Midland Naturalist 153, 142-151. Retrieved 
      January 27, 2010, from Academic OneFile

Naiman, R.J. (2000). Riparian ecology and management in the Pacific 
      coastal rain forest. Bioscience 50, 996-1011. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from 
      Academic OneFile

North, J.A., Burner, L.C., Cunningham, B.S., Farr, R.A., Friesen, T.A., Harrington, 
      J.C., et al. (2002). Relationships between bank treatment/nearshore 
      development and anadromous/resident fish in the lower Willamette River: Annual 
      progress report, July 2001-June 2002. Portland, OR: City of Portland 
      Bureau of Environmental Services.  Retrieved January 30, 2013, from 
      http://www.dfw.state.or.us/fish/oscrp/CRI/docs/Predator_control_02.pdf

Rieman, B., Peterson, J.T., Clayton, J., Howell, P., Thurow, R., Thompson, W., & 
      Lee, D. (2001). Evaluation of potential effects of federal land management 
      alternatives on trends of salmonids and their habitats in the interior Columbia 
      River basin. Forest Ecology and Management 153, 43-62. Retrieved 
      December 15, 2003, from http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/boise/publications/fisheries/
      rmrs_2001_riemanb001.pdf

Semeniuk, Robert S. (2003, April). How bears feed salmon to the forest. Natural 
      History 112, p. 22-28. 
Chemeketa subscribes to this publication.

Thompson, W.L. & Lee, D.C. (2000). Modeling relationships between landscape-
      level attributes and snorkel counts of chinook salmon and steelhead parr  
      in Idaho. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57, p. 1834-
      1842. Retrieved December 9, 2003, from 
      http://new-www3.uark.edu/biscweb/Coop/Publications/parrlandscapehabitat.pdf

Water Quality, Effect of

See also Meador, Milston

Baldwin, D.H., Tartara, C.P., & Scholz, N.L. (2011). Copper-induced 
      olfactory toxicity in salmon and steelhead: Extrapolation across 
      species and rearing environments. Aquatic Toxicology, 101, 295–297.
      doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.08.011

Bash, J. Berman, C. & Bolton, S. (2001, November). Effects of turbidity and 
      suspended solids on salmonids. Seattle: U. Washington Center for Streamside 
      Studies. Retrieved October 11, 2002, from 
      https://digital.lib.washington.edu/researchworks/bitstream/
      handle/1773/16382/Salmon%20and%20Turbidity.pdf.txt?sequence=2

Fernandez, M.P., Campbell, P.M., Ikonomou, M.G., & Devlin, R.H. (2007). 
      Assessment of environmental estrogens and the intersex/sex reversal capacity 
      for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in primary and final municipal 
      wastewater effluents. Environment International, 33, 391-396. 
      doi:10.1016/j.envint.2006.12.002

Jarrard, J. (2002). Behavioral and neurophysiological effects of carbamate pesticides 
      on olfactory capabilities in Pacific salmon. In C. Kennedy, A. Kolok & D. 
      MacInlay (Eds.) Aquatic toxicology: mechanisms and consequences: Symposium 
      proceedings. Vancouver: University of British Columbia International Congress 
      On the Biology Of Fish. Retrieved October 10, 2002, from 
      http://www-heb.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/congress/2002/Toxicol/Jarrad.pdf

Krümmel, E.M., Macdonald, R.W., Kimpe, L.E., Gregory-Eaves, I., Demers, M.J., et al. (2003).
      Aquatic ecology: Delivery of pollutants by spawning salmon. Nature 425, p. 255-256.
      doi:10.1038/425255a

Meador, J.P., Sommers, F.C., Ylitalo, G.M., Sloan, C.A.  (2006). Altered growth 
      and related physiological responses in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus 
      tshawytscha) from dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). 
      Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 63, 2364-2376.
      doi:10.1139/f06-127

Nagler, J.J., Bouma, J., Thorgaard, G.H., & Dauble, D.D. (2001). High 
      incidence of a male-specific genetic marker in phenotypic female chinook 
      salmon from the Columbia River.. Environmental Health Perspectives 109,  
      67-69. Retrieved January 27, 2010, from Academic OneFile

Osachoff, H. L., van Aggelen, G. C., Mommsen, T. P., & Kennedy, C. J. (2012). 
      Concentration-response relationships and temporal patterns in hepatic gene 
      expression of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to 
      sewage. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D: Genomics and 
      Proteomics 8, 32-44.  doi: 10.1016/j.cbd.2012.10.002

Ray, R.A., Holt, R.A., & Bartholomew, J.L. (2012). Relationship between 
      temperature and Ceratomyxa shasta-induced mortality in Klamath River
      salmonids. Journal of Parasitology, 98, 20–526. doi:10.1645/
      JP-GE-2737.1

Senkowsky, S. (2004, November). Fear of fish: The contaminant controversy. 
      Bioscience, 54, 986-988. Retrieved December 7, 2009, from  
      Academic OneFile

Spromberg, J.A., and Meador, J.P. (2006). Relating chronic toxicity responses 
      to population-level effects: A comparison of population-level parameters 
      for three salmon species as a function of low-level toxicity. Ecological 
      Modelling, 199, 240-252. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.05.007

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2003). EPA Region 10 Guidance for Pacific 
      Northwest State and Tribal Temperature Water Quality Standards. 
      (EPA 910-B-03-002). Seattle, WA: Region 10 Office of Water, . Retrieved December 5,
      2006, from http://yosemite.epa.gov/R10/water.nsf/6cb1a1df2c49e4968825688200712cb7/
      b3f932e58e2f3b9488256d16007d3bca/$FILE/TempGuidanceEPAFinal.pdf

Veldhoen, N., Ikonomou, M.G. Dubetz, C. MacPherson, N., Sampson, T., Kelly, 
      B.C., & Helbing, C.C. (2009). Gene expression profiling and environmental 
      contaminant assessment of migrating Pacific salmon in the Fraser River  
      watershed of British Columbia. Aquatic Toxicology [in press]. 
      doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.09.009

Woodward, D.F., Farag, A.M., DeLonay, A.J., Cleveland, L.J., Brumbaugh, W.G.,
      & Little, E.E. (1999). The potential for contaminated ground water to 
      adversely affect chinook salmon under exposure conditions simulating the 
      Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, USA, in D.W. Morganwalp
      &  H.T. Buxton (Eds.), U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology 
      Program--Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, 
      March 8-12, 1999--Volume 2 of 3--Contamination of Hydrologic Systems and 
      Related Ecosystems (U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations 
      Report 99-4018B), p. 455-463. Retrieved October 17, 2002, from 
      http://toxics.usgs.gov/pubs/wri99-4018/Volume2/sectionD/2509_Woodward/index.html

Miscellaneous Topics

 

Davis, J.C. & Davis, G.A. (2010, April). The influence of stream 
      crossing structures on the distribution of rearing juvenile 
      Pacific salmon (Grant report). Talkeetna, AK: ARRI: Aquatic  
      Restoration & Research Institute. Retrieved from
      http://arrialaska.org/reports/Fish%20Passage%20Report%20ARRI%202010.pdf

Geist, D.R. (2000). Interaction of ground water and surface water within fall chinook 
      salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, in Proceedings 
      of the Ground-Water/Surface-Water Interactions Workshop, (EPA/442/R-00/007, p. 
      95-98). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved January 12, 
      2013, from http://www.epa.gov/tio/download/remed/gwsw/gwsw_part2.pdf

Harvey, B.C. & Lisle, T.E. (1999). Scour of chinook salmon redds on suction 
      dredge tailings. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 19, 
      613-617. Retrieved February 24, 2003, from 
      http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/harvey/Harvey99.PDF

Lomeli, M.J.M., Wakefield, W.W. (2012). Efforts to  reduce Chinook 
      salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rockfish (Sebastes spp.)
      bycatch in the U.S. west coast Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) 
      fishery. Fisheries Research, 119–120, 128–132. 
      doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2011.11.003

Montgomery, D.R. (2000). Coevolution of the Pacific salmon and the Pacific 
      Rim topography. Geology 28, 1107-1110. 

      Note: Chemeketa subscribes to this journal.

Peterson, R. E. and T. M. Poston. (2000). Strontium-90 at the Hanford Site and its 
      Ecological Implications (Report PNNL-13127). Richland, WA: Pacific 
      Northwest National Laboratory. doi:10.2172/755352

Moore, M., Berejikian, B. A., & Tezak, E. P. (2013). A floating bridge disrupts 
      seaward migration and increases mortality of steelhead smolts in Hood Canal, 
      Washington State. PloS one, 8, e73427. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073427

Witherell, D., Ackley, D., & Coon, C. (2002). An overview of salmon
     bycatch in Alaska groundfish fisheries.  Alaska Fishery Research 
     Bulletin 9, 53-64. Retrieved January 13, 2013, from 
     http://www.sf.adfg.state.ak.us/FedAidpdfs/AFRB.09.1.053-064.pdf


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